## The main structure of rubber spring

The main structure of rubber spring spring part name for:
1, Spring wire diameter d: Springs wire diameter.
Outside diameter d 2, spring: maximum external diameter of the spring.
3, spring diameter D1: minimum outside diameter of the spring.
4, spring diameter D2: the mean diameter of the spring. Their formula is: D2= (D+D1) ÷ 2=D1+d=D-d5, and t: in addition to outside support, spring between two points on the diameter of the axial distance corresponding pitch, represented by t.
6, the effective number n: number of springs to maintain the same pitch.
7, support rings the number N2: in order for the spring force uniform at work to ensure vertical face, when manufacturing, spring ends and is often tight. And tight turns only plays a supporting role, called the supporting ring. General 1.5T, 2T, 2.5T, 2T.
8, the total number N1: effective number of rings and support rings. That is, N1=n+N2.
9, free height H0: spring in height without external forces. By calculating from the equation: H0=nt+ (N2-0.5) d=NT+1.5d (N2=2,) # 10, spring length l: wire length required for a wound spring. L ≈ N1 (л D2), 2+N2 (spring) L= л D2 n+ hook lengths (spring)

## keys instructions for operating of Computer spring forming machine

Computer spring machine is used to production spring of dedicated equipment. Press Board, as a human-computer interaction of operation interface, up with entered operation command, edit spring processing program and the modified data of function, on computer spring machine of operation control up with important role. in actual application in the, for convenient operation, need will press Board of press characters of and directly of, this makes using standard of PC keyboard not too may, so development a cheap and General of press Board on is has significance. in PC machine in the, Keyboard and a host of communication using PS/2 Protocol. because computer spring forming machine controller is a standard industrial PC controllers, have a standard keyboard interface, in order to keep the design simple and generic, keyboard interface using the standard here, and to keys using PS/2 Protocol of communication between Board and spring, Design selection of SCM as the key chip keys of identification and the sending and receiving of data. This paper describes the design and detailed method of achieving this key board.
I. key design
Press Board used film Panel switch form, film Panel switch design simple, operation convenient, placed easy, directly posted in a surface on can using, plus its waterproof dust of performance, is for industrial control of application occasions. on a spring machine of press Board for, its press including three class: digital key, function key and edit key. digital key achieved of is digital of entered; function key corresponds to of is spring machine of operation command; Edit key for on spring processing program of edit, as clear, and Etc. a well-designed button placement, directly associated with ease of operation and reliability, for a specific layout of each key, should be considered for operational convenience and beautiful layout, 7 lines of x8 after the completion of the design under column layout of keys, see

Thin-film panels the following array circuit using single-sided flexible circuit board (FPC), convex form of the circuit to ensure that the press feel. it is the keyboard array rows of the output line and column line.
II. key board hardware and software design
Both keys for hardware design and software design, both keys will be involved and host communication protocols. so before access to hardware and software design, a simple introduction to PS/2 agreement.
1. PS/2 Protocol
PS/2 agreement is peripherals and host Zhijian communications of a synchronization double serial agreement. in agreement in the host end has high of priority level, in must conditions Xia it can suspended peripherals is for of sent process. the agreement used of short frame format transfer data of data frame format for: 1 bit starting bit (0), 8 bit data bit, one odd check bit, one stop bit (1). data sent Shi low in Qian, high in Hou. peripherals each received host sent to of a frame data, Are to followed the frame of stop bit sent a shook hands bit ACK (0) answer host, then peripherals also to sent 1 frame answer data (0xF0), showed that has full to received to has host of command; and host in received peripherals data Hou without sent shook hands signal ACK, also not need addition sent answer frame. regardless of is host returned is peripherals sent data, synchronization clock are is by peripherals produced of.

According to received party and sent party of different, the agreement can is divided into two part, one for peripherals sent host received of communications, this a process occurred in staff operation peripherals or peripherals answer host end sent to of command Shi, data line and clock line in free State Xia maintained high level State; second for host sent peripherals received of communications, the process occurred in host Shang electric since check Shi, host sent test signal detection peripherals whether exists and judge is what type of peripherals Shi. This Shang electric detection on peripherals for is important, Which a detection project for basic guarantee test (Basic Assure Test), dang host sent the command to peripherals Shi, peripherals must echo corresponding of answer frame, or host on think the peripherals of boot since check didn’t can through, in DOS above of system in the, peripherals will cannot using. host Shang electric since check Shi, sent to peripherals of data is a command set, for each command, peripherals are to made corresponding of response, these response Word also are is agreement by provides good of, specific can see literature [1] .
2. hardware design
Where AT89S51 is used as keys for the main processing chip. AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance 8-bit CMOS microcontroller, with 32 I/O ports are available, can meet the requirements when there are row-column scanning and software watchdog.

Corresponds with the front button placement, using 7×8 matrix structure. lines with 89S51 P2, line P0 port, P0 port does not have an internal pullup resistor, so lines shall be an external pull-up resistor. AT89S51 power supply is provided by the PS/2 interface of the host used frequency of 12MHz external crystal oscillator. P3.6 and P3.7 as the data and clock lines and communicate with hosts, complete hardware schematic is shown in Figure II.
Keys for array diagram as shown in Figure III, keys for array simply by its line and column line leads to the receive line interface as shown in Figure II. key board and connected to the host through the PS/2 interface connector, now a common PS/2 interface connector as shown in figure IV.
3. software design
Software design is the key of keys for achieving, microcontroller programming in c language. through the main program and a series of programs to achieve. main program for system initialization subroutine calls. command subroutine subprograms include receiving hosts, send data subprogram receives data subprogram, row-column scanning routines as well as send different programs.

Received host command child program for Panel received host of command, and made corresponding of response, this in DOS above of system in the is important, or host not admitted press Board of exists. sent data child program for sent data frame to host, each a bit data of sent are is by PS/2 agreement of timing requirements by prepared of. received data child program for received host sent to of data frame, each a bit data of received is by timing provides of. ranks scan child program role is on press Board Shang key of recognition, And will the key corresponds to of code sent to press buffer temporarily save up. PS/2 agreement in the, dang a key was by Xia or press Shi on sent the key of pass code (MAKE), was release Shi on sent broken code (BREAK), each press are was distribution has only of pass code and broken code (agreement in the collectively for scan code), such host through scan code on can recognition press of category. in spring machine of press Board in the, because Panel in the of key not full is standard of, for those since defined of key, Can will the key and a standard key of scan code corresponds to up, for example can will Panel in the of “started” and standard key “a,” corresponds to, such Dang “started” was by Xia Shi, sent to host of is letters “a,” of scan code, through heavy defined host system in the of related control part, on can achieved started spring machine of function. sent key different program for sent press buffer in the of data. and for Panel in the of “lock key”, achieved of is Panel of lock died, in industrial system in the, This is very necessary for the reliability of the operating system, when the key is pressed, no data in the send buffer, and flush the buffers, click Unlock. in order to prevent the occurrence of panic, added to the main program loop software watchdog. software flow chart shown in the following figure:

## Analysis of the future market of metal stamping parts

Metal stamping parts fortune has become an hardware market future business opportunities, strong East metal stamping factory in Dongguan from the recent actions of individual enterprises, thoughts derived as follows:
Along with automatic lathe intensification of competitive pressure in the market, most of the metal factory in the production of its stages in the chain’s profit margins are compressed, increasingly reduced room for the price. After the price increase, hardware factory cost of production increased to digest themselves, hard to pass on and raw materials, Dongguan factory profit margins are further squeezed. Industrial chain leading to a cycle of hardware factory recognizes, to long-term development, market, it is necessary to reselect the new battlefield. While price competition alone cannot build the core competitiveness, not a long-term development direction, to explore a new development path. While strengthening the enterprise’s technical innovation and improve the quality of their products. Establish a new business line approach to ensure the sustainable development of enterprises.
Meanwhile, quite part city, as PIN to type market, not only number partial more, and grade not high, and more for integrated type, no formed professional features and dislocation business, its results caused competition increased, development by restricted, again shuffle inevitable; for few origin type, and national type and has international of professional market, we is bullish, this is local market into global market most active, and most with vitality of cell, these professional market not only market space big, And a good combination with the local industry, the support of local Government much more than other types of specialized markets.

Metal stamping industries in addition to its industrial clusters outside the region, in other areas of development, as we can see, now a relatively mature development of the first-tier cities, no matter what the market will have a corresponding scale. But relatively speaking, two or three lines of urban development lacking. 3-5 years in the future, with the deepening of urban planning, believes will drive development of channels of hardware and third-tier cities. Who wants to development agents, might as well learn tools, early to establish their own storefront. Might be a good way to fortune.

## Wave Springs introduction

Wave Springs referred to as wave Springs, is made up of a number of peaks and troughs thin circular elastic metal components, the product is high-quality spring steel 65Mn
(60Si2MnA/50CrVA/0Cr17Ni7Al/SUS304), specific heat and depending on the circumstances, general control of hardness between HRC44-55, black finished with good elasticity.
Wave springs are widely used in motor, textile machinery, hydraulic equipment, automobile and other industries, the main installation and specification (nominal size) that is appropriate for the bearing housing or hole in the installation space is very small, with lower noise, reduce vibration special features.

## Maintenance of common sense introduction spring clutch

Spring clutch maintenance of common sense:
Clutch spring most of the time is the effect of static pressure, when used for too long, plastic deformation occurs, length shortened, elastic weakens. Stretch after the weakening of the clutch spring. The transmissible torque of the clutch will reduce engine power cannot give full play, resulting in locomotives work weak.
Clutch spring most of the time is the effect of static pressure, when used for too long, plastic deformation occurs, length shortened, elastic weakens. Stretch after the weakening of the clutch spring. The transmissible torque of the clutch will reduce engine power cannot give full play, resulting in locomotives work weak. After the elastic weakens when clutch springs are found, the parts in contact with the spring pockets, add the appropriate thickness shim adjustment. Gasket should pay attention in Canada, the free length of the spring on the clutch Assembly (includes gasket thickness) should be consistent. If gasket rear springs are unable to restore the original elastic, a new spring set should be replaced. Under normal circumstances, when the spring after using 2500~3000h, plus 1~2mm thicker shims to adjust the pressure after using 5000h, all spring and should be replaced.

## The design parameters , the associated standards, features and applications of compression springs

Compression spring is bear to pressure of spiral spring, it by with of material section more for round, also useful rectangle and more unit steel entangles volume business of, spring General for, section from of, compression spring of shape has: cylindrical shaped, and round tapered, and in the convex shaped and in the concave shaped and few of non-round,, compression spring of circle and circle Zhijian has must of clearance, dang by outside load Shi spring contraction deformation, store deformation can.
1. compression spring parameters
(1) pressure spring control diameter outside diameter, inside diameter, installed to ensure the casing diameter, fit cylinder outside diameter.
(2) the size of wire or steel bars.
(3) material (type and level).
(4) number: the total number of rings and the right-handed or left-handed.
(5) the two ends of the form.
(6) in a flexible length under load.
(7) an inch to several inches of length range of load rate.
(8) the maximum height of “free long.
(9) employ minimum compression high.
Drawings, please indicate: material diameter, outside diameter, total free height, ring, ring number, pitch, Helix is: there are divided into left and right rotation, right, drawings did not indicate general use right. There are loads on the load requirements and corresponding values.

2. compression spring associated standards
Cold coiled helical springs-technical specifications, GB/T2089-94, and so on.
3. characteristics of compression springs
Compression spring foreign contains pressure provides against power. compression spring General is wire, section from coiled and has fixed of line diameter. compression spring using multiple open coil foreign contains pressure (as gravity pressure Xia wheels, or body pressure in bed mattress Shang) supply resistance power. is, they back push to against external pressure. compression spring General is wire, section from coiled and has fixed of line diameter. also, also has round tapered of compression spring, or Cone and line type combination of spring. According to different of application field, Compression springs can be used to resist the pressure and (or) stored energy. round wire compression spring is most common, but there are square, rectangular and special-shaped wire to create a compression spring.
4. the application of compression springs
Medical respiratory equipment, mobile equipment, hand tools, home care equipment, shock absorber, engine valve spring.

## Technology and technical standards of Compressed gas spring

1. scope
Standards applicable to filled with nitrogen or inert gas for gas spring working medium.
2. normative references
GB/t 1771-91 for paints and varnishes-determination of resistance to salt spray
GB 1800-79 general introduction of tolerances and fits standard tolerances and deviations
GB/t 2348-93-fluid power systems and components-cylinder bores and piston rod diameter
GB 2349-80-fluid power systems and components-cylinder basic series of piston strokes
GB 2828-87-by-lot inspection sampling procedures and tables (apply to inspection of successive lots or batches)
GB 6458-86 metallic coating in neutral salt spray test (NSS test)
GB 6461-86 metallic coatings on substrate for the cathode electroplating coating corrosion tests of samples of rating
Autocatalytic nickel-phosphorus coatings GB/T 13913-92 technical requirements and test methods
JB 2864-81-electroplated coatings for automotive and chemical treatment
JB/Z 111-86 automotive paint coating
3. gas springs with terminology, symbols, definitions
Cylinder diameter: outer diameter of the gas spring cylinder.
Piston rod diameter: gas spring piston rod diameter.
Stretched length: gas spring free two when stretched to the limit position of the piston rod connection centre distance.
Stroke: piston rod from stretching when compressed to the minimum installation dimensions for axial displacement.

A loop: according to stipulations of the piston rod stroke compression and stretching of time.
Stretch speed: piston rod from under the average speed of the initial position free end to the stretch of the trip.
Start: gas spring stretching State keep some time then start the external force required to press the piston rod.
Aerodynamic damping: stretches from d to m in the course of the piston rod from gas damping piston area.
Hydraulic damping: from m to a piston rod extension process from liquid damp areas.
Minimal stretching force: in the process of stretching, working stroke at the beginning from the determination of stretching force for minimum stretching force.
Maximum stretching force: in the process of stretching from end stroke determination of stretching force to the maximum stretching force.
Minimum compression force: in the compression process, from the working stroke of determination at the beginning of the compression force for the minimum compression force.
Maximum compression pressure: compression process, the determination from the work schedule at the end of the compression force for the maximum compressive force.
4. technical requirements
(1) the dimensions and surface quality
A … air spring piston rod diameter and piston stroke should be selected according to GB/t 2348 and GB 2349. when the pneumatic spring piston rod diameter and piston stroke in accordance with the above criteria, can be indicated in the technical documentation: products and travel of the piston rod diameter in accordance with GB/t 2348 and GB 2349 regulations.

B. gas springs stretched length tolerances according to GB 1800 IT16 stipulated in precision manufacturing.
C. coating shall conform to GB/t 13913, JB 2864, the main surfaces should be smooth, no bumps, scratches, peeling, bubble, pinhole, tumor, stains, some defects.
D. chemical processing layer should conform to JB 2864, uniform color, no rust, obvious spots and attached red sediments.
E. paint coating shall conform to JB/Z 111, flat paint, same color, no significant pitting, no severe sagging, threadbare is not allowed.
(2) performance requirements
A. gas springs loop should not have card resistance phenomenon, which lies inside a loop is not greater than the maximum value of dynamic friction.
B. gas springs start must be less than 1.5F3.
C. gas springs stretch speed should be between 100-200mm/s, if you have special needs, can be determined by agreement between the supply and demand sides.
D. ratio of gas spring and hydraulic damping length are interrelated, and should be determined by the mutual agreement of supply and demand under load.
(3) corrosion resistance
Gas springs should be able to withstand the 96h neutral salt spray test, after the pilot piston rod and cylinder surfaces should not have visible corrosion.
(4) hot and cold shock resistance performance
A. gas springs should be able to withstand low temperature-30 ° c temperature 80 ° c thermal cycling tests:

B. use of environment the gas spring should be repeated 12 thermal shock test, after the pilot gas spring nominal attenuation should not be greater than 8%;
C. using environment the gas spring should be repeated 2 times hot and cold impact test, after the pilot gas spring nominal attenuation should not be greater than 5%.
(5) life cycle
After a performance test for thermal shock resistance of gas spring should also be under 20,000 circulation life test, after the pilot the nominal force is the total attenuation is less than 13%.
(6) the tensile strength
A. gas springs by 4 times the nominal tensile, maintained 5min, gas spring force should remain unchanged.
B. gas springs by 8 times times the nominal tensile, maintained 5min, allows the separation of gas spring failure but not mutilated.

## Free type gas spring and self-locking gas springs

Gas spring with free gas spring and self-locking gas springs in both categories, then what? respectively, what’s the use? below for these two types of gas springs are presented separately.
1. free type gas springs
Free type gas springs in the free State the length of the longest (stroke minimum), after pressure by the thrust is greater than itself, can be compressed until the minimum length (travel maximum). free type gas spring only compression (external pressure and two free State), cannot be locking itself in its run, free-gas spring mainly plays a supporting role.
Principle: in pressure tube filling Shang high pressure gas, movement piston Shang has pass hole, guarantee whole pressure tube of pressure not with piston of mobile and changes. and gas spring of advocated is to pressure tube and outside atmospheric pressure role Yu piston rod cross section Shang of pressure poor. due to pressure tube of pressure basic not variable, and piston rod of cross section is must of, so in whole trip gas spring of force basic keep constant.
Free type gas spring, with its light, smooth, convenient operation, price concessions and other features in automobiles, engineering machinery, textile machinery, printing equipment, tobacco, machinery, pharmaceutical equipment industry application of GF.

2. self-locking gas springs
Since lock type gas spring and said adjustable angle device, is a can in trip any a location lock of gas spring. in since lock type gas spring of piston rod end Department has a needle valve open this needle valve, is since lock type gas spring can as free type gas spring as run; release needle valve, since lock type gas spring can since type lock in at of location, and since lock force often is big, that can support relative larger of power. so since lock type gas spring in keep has free type gas spring function of while, also can in trip of any a location lock, And lock Hou also can hosted larger of load. Since lock type gas spring according to since lock form of different, is divided into elastic since lock and rigid since lock. rigid since lock and is divided into pressure into direction rigid since lock, and stretch direction rigid since lock and pressure into stretch direction are rigid since lock. so-called elastic since lock refers to gas spring open needle valve run process in the, release needle valve for since lock Shi has a buffer role, and rigid since lock is almost no buffer.
Due to the self-locking gas springs along with support, adjustable height function, and the operation is very flexible structure is relatively simple. so in cosmetic medical equipment, chairs, furniture, areas such as aviation, luxury coach until the widely.

## Features of tension springs

Now spring has become an important part of human life gadget, in different directions, using a different spring, let is widely used in the analysis of spring–a characteristic of tension springs
Many different terminal devices or “hook” is used to ensure the pulling tension of the spring source. compression springs and tension springs work instead. compression spring effect when pressed, pull spring when stretched or pulled a reverse role. When tension springs open at both ends, and spring is trying to bring them back together.
Compression springs, tension springs to absorb and store energy. but, unlike compression spring is that most of the tension springs are usually under some degree of tension, even in case of no load. this initial tension of decision in case of no load, how tightly the extension spring coils.

## Classification and characteristics of rubber spring

Composite rubber including rubber spring and rubber spring spring.
Rubber spring: is a high elastic body, making material has general rubber. rubber spring modulus small, by contains Hou has larger of elastic deformation, to absorption impact and vibration. it can while by multi-directional load, but resistance high temperature sex and resistance oily than steel spring poor. as has special requirements available resistance oil rubber made. the products reduction vibration effect good, resonance field small, using life long, cost low, also has good of Hardy sex, excellent of gas key sex, waterproof sex, electric insulation sex, is reduction vibration of best select.
Composite rubber spring: is by metal spiral spring and outside package of quality Vulcanized rubber common constitute. set metal spring and rubber spring of advantages Yu one, overcome has metal spring rigid big, and work noise high and the rubber spring bearing weight small, and shape and the mechanical performance stable sex poor shortcomings. has more high of load volume and big deformation volume, and shock drop noise effect better, and work smooth, and resonance interval short, advantages.
The main characteristic of rubber spring:
Rubber spring shape is not restricted, there are large elastic deformation, easy to implement non-linear requirements, vibration noise … compound rubber rubber spring spring, the former shape metal coil spring-restricted, linear high weight, but its many advantages of the weight-bearing load is not pure rubber spring can be compared.
Application of rubber spring:
Mechanical vibration, double-decker buses, trucks and other industrial machinery, and rubber Springs used in machinery and equipment, running gear and suspension of vehicle, gentle vibration.